Conserved HA-peptide NG34 formulated in pCMV-CTLA4-Ig reduces viral shedding in pigs after a heterosubtypic influenza virus SwH3N2 challenge.

Conserved HA-peptide NG34 formulated in pCMV-CTLA4-Ig reduces viral shedding in pigs after a heterosubtypic influenza virus SwH3N2 challenge.

Swine influenza viruses (SIVs), the causal agents of swine influenza, are not only important to control due to the economic losses in the swine industry, but also can be pandemic pathogens. Vaccination is one of the most relevant strategies to control and prevent influenza infection. Current human vaccines against influenza induce strain-specific immunity and annual update is required due to the virus antigenic shift phenomena. Previously, our group has reported the use of conserved hemagglutinin peptides (HA-peptides) derived from H1-influenza virus as a potential multivalent vaccine candidate.

Immunization of swine with these HA-peptides elicited antibodies that recognized and neutralized heterologous influenza viruses in vitro and demonstrated strong hemagglutination-inhibiting activity. In the present work, we cloned one HA-peptide (named NG34) into a plasmid fused with cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA4) which is a molecule that modifies T cell activation and with an adjuvant activity interfering with the adaptive immune response.

The resulting plasmid, named pCMV-CTLA4-Ig-NG34, was administered twice to animals employing a needle-free delivery approach. Two studies were carried out to test the efficacy of pCMV-CTLA4-Ig-NG34 as a potential swine influenza vaccine, one in seronegative and another in seropositive pigs against SIV. The second one was aimed to evaluate whether pCMV-CTLA4-Ig-NG34 vaccination would overcome maternally derived antibodies (MDA). After immunization, all animals were intranasally challenged with an H3N2 influenza strain.

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Treponema p17

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Description: Recombinant Treponema pallidum p17

Treponema p41

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Description: Recombinant Treponema pallidum p41

Treponema p47

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Treponema p15

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Description: Recombinant Treponema pallidum p15

Treponema p17

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Description: Recombinant Treponema pallidum p17 (Partial)

Treponema p47

trp-249 100µg
EUR 165
Description: Recombinant Treponema pallidum p47 (Partial)

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EUR 165
Description: Recombinant Treponema pallidum p15 (partial)

Treponema TmpA

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Description: Recombinant Treponema pallidum TmpA (Partial)

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Description: Recombinant Treponema pallidum TmpA

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Description: Recombinant Treponema pallidum Outer Membrane Protein TP0453 

Treponema Mosaic

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Description: Recombinant Treponema pallidum Mosaic

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Description: Mouse monoclonal Treponema pallidum antibody

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Description: Mouse monoclonal Treponema pallidum antibody

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Description: Goat polyclonal Treponema pallidum antibody

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Description: Rabbit polyclonal Treponema pallidum antibody

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Description: Anti-TP ELISA is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for qualitative determination of antibodies to Treponema Pallidum in human serum or plasma samples. The assay is intended to be used in clinical laboratories for diagnosis and management of patients related to infection with Treponema Pallidum.

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Description: Recombinant Treponema phagedenis Treponemal membrane protein B(tmpB) expressed in E.coli

Treponema pallidum Ag Protein

abx061388-05mg 0.5 mg
EUR 1328.4

Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) Antibody

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EUR 610.8

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A complete elimination or significant reduction in the viral shedding was observed within the first week after the challenge in the vaccinated animals from both studies. In addition, no challenged heterologous virus load was detected in the airways of vaccinated pigs. Overall, it is suggested that the pCMV-CTLA4-Ig-NG34 vaccine formulation could potentially be used as a multivalent vaccine against influenza viruses.

Conserved HA-peptide NG34 formulated in pCMV-CTLA4-Ig reduces viral shedding in pigs after a heterosubtypic influenza virus SwH3N2 challenge.
Conserved HA-peptide NG34 formulated in pCMV-CTLA4-Ig reduces viral shedding in pigs after a heterosubtypic influenza virus SwH3N2 challenge.

Sowing the Seeds of a Pandemic? Mammalian Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of H1 Variant Influenza Viruses from the Swine Reservoir.

Emergence of genetically and antigenically diverse strains of influenza to which the human population has no or limited immunity necessitates continuous risk assessments to determine the likelihood of these viruses acquiring adaptations that facilitate sustained human-to-human transmission.

As the North American swine H1 virus population has diversified over the last century by means of both antigenic drift and shift, in vivo assessments to study multifactorial traits like mammalian pathogenicity and transmissibility of these emerging influenza viruses are critical. In this review, we examine genetic, molecular, and pathogenicity and transmissibility data from a panel of contemporary North American H1 subtype swine-origin viruses isolated from humans, as compared to H1N1 seasonal and pandemic viruses, including the reconstructed 1918 virus.

We present side-by-side analyses of experiments performed in the mouse and ferret models using consistent experimental protocols to facilitate enhanced interpretation of in vivo data. Contextualizing these analyses in a broader context permits a greater appreciation of the role that in vivo risk assessment experiments play in pandemic preparedness. Collectively, we find that despite strain-specific heterogeneity among swine-origin H1 viruses, contemporary swine viruses isolated from humans possess many attributes shared by prior pandemic strains, warranting heightened surveillance and evaluation of these zoonotic viruses.

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