Breath diagnostics in the era of SARS-CoV-2 – in clinical and research arena.

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has transformed not just healthcare, but also the economic systems on a global scale. Despite significant efforts to contain the infection, it continues to spread. Stringent infection control measures have been taken to minimise the transmission between individuals and healthcare workers, especially those undertaking aerosols generating medical procedures.

The uncertainties surrounding infection transmission through breath tests in particular, and to some extent faecal testing, will invariably cause concerns among both the patients and the healthcare workers. It is therefore pertinent that all of the necessary measures are adopted to minimise this risk of spreading. In this article, we summarise the physiology and virulence of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the implications for breath testing (in both the clinical and research arena) as well as outlining methods to mitigate these risks.

SARS-CoV-2, Testosterone and frailty in males (PROTEGGIMI): A multidimensional research project.

Preliminary published data depicts a much greater prevalence of malewith laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) referred for intensive care unit admission and severe sequelae in several countries. In this context, males seem to not only be more susceptible to the infection compared to female subjects, at least in western countries, but their case fatality rate attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection is also highest.

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

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EUR 178.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG

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EUR 373.2
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG

40-GR30 100 ml
EUR 289.2
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG

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EUR 159.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

goat Anti Rabbit IgG

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EUR 328.8

Mouse anti Rabbit IgG

40-1005 1 mg
EUR 418.8
Description: Mouse anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Mouse anti Rabbit IgG

40-1006 1 mg
EUR 418.8
Description: Mouse anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Sheep anti Rabbit IgG

40-SR35 250 ml
EUR 159.6
Description: Sheep anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Cat IgG

40C-CB0222 2 mg
EUR 297.6
Description: Rabbit anti Cat IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Dog IgG

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EUR 416.4
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Dog IgG

40C-CB0408 2 mg
EUR 327.6
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Rat IgG

40C-CB1243 2 mg
EUR 314.4
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody

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EUR 411.6

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20-S5801R000-VO 10 ml
EUR 159.6
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG antibody

Rabbit anti Goat IgG

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EUR 292.8
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Goat IgG

40C-CB0536 1.5 mg
EUR 322.8
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody

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EUR 411.6

Rabbit anti Human IgG

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EUR 298.8
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody

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EUR 457.2
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody

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EUR 386.4
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody

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EUR 327.6
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

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EUR 456
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

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EUR 429.6
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

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EUR 159.6
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

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Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

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Rabbit anti Horse IgG

E61I02401 0.1mg
EUR 411.6

Rabbit anti Bovine IgG

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EUR 337.2
Description: Rabbit anti Bovine IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Bovine IgG

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EUR 416.4
Description: Rabbit anti Bovine IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Chicken IgG

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EUR 322.8
Description: Rabbit anti Chicken IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Chicken IgG

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EUR 415.2
Description: Rabbit anti Chicken IgG secondary antibody

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70R-IG011 1.5 mg
EUR 453.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG Fc secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG Fc

70R-IG017 2 mg
EUR 457.2
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG Fc secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG Fc

41C-CB1136 2 mg
EUR 298.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit Anti-Monkey IgG

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EUR 367.92
Description: Rabbit Anti-Monkey IgG secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1141 2 mg
EUR 447.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1148 2 mg
EUR 429.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1155 2 mg
EUR 442.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1162 2 mg
EUR 483.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (HRP)

43R-1495 1 mg
EUR 165.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody  (HRP)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (FITC)

43-GR59 2 mg
EUR 376.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1137 2 mg
EUR 328.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (FITC)

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EUR 375.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

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EUR 465.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (FITC)

43R-1494 2 mg
EUR 232.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody  (FITC)

goat Anti Rabbit IgG-HRP

E61I01303 1mg
EUR 598.8

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (biotin)

43C-CB1140 2 mg
EUR 379.2
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

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EUR 474
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (biotin)

43C-CB1154 2 mg
EUR 373.2
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (biotin)

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EUR 478.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (biotin)

43R-1493 2 mg
EUR 219.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody  (biotin)

goat Anti Rabbit IgG-FITC

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EUR 733.2

Chicken anti Rabbit IgG (FITC)

43R-1601 1 ml
EUR 262.8
Description: Chicken anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit Anti-Glutathione IgG

GSH11-A 100 ul
EUR 578.4

goat Anti Rabbit IgG-Biotin

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Goat anti Rabbit IgG (rhodamine)

43C-CB1138 2 mg
EUR 336
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Rhodamine)

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43C-CB1145 2 mg
EUR 396
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Rhodamine)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (rhodamine)

43C-CB1152 2 mg
EUR 346.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Rhodamine)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (rhodamine)

43C-CB1159 2 mg
EUR 465.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Rhodamine)

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG (Fc) IgG, unlabeled

10119-R 0.5 mg
EUR 169.2

Rabbit anti Cat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0227 2 mg
EUR 429.6
Description: Rabbit anti Cat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0413 1.5 mg
EUR 474
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0420 2 mg
EUR 456
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1248 1.5 mg
EUR 488.4
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1255 2 mg
EUR 458.4
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

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EUR 225.6
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG Fc fragment secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Goat IgG Fc

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EUR 248.4
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG Fc fragment secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Cat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0223 2 mg
EUR 358.8
Description: Rabbit anti Cat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0409 1.5 mg
EUR 381.6
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0416 2 mg
EUR 362.4
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0527 2 mg
EUR 396
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0534 2 mg
EUR 420
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0541 1 mg
EUR 450
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1244 1.5 mg
EUR 332.4
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1251 2 mg
EUR 339.6
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0523 2 mg
EUR 343.2
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0530 2 mg
EUR 349.2
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0537 1 mg
EUR 373.2
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0948 1 mg
EUR 500.4
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0955 2 mg
EUR 433.2
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0969 2 mg
EUR 442.8
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1327 1.5 mg
EUR 447.6
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1334 500 µg
EUR 561.6
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1341 1.5 mg
EUR 456
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1348 500 µg
EUR 523.2
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

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EUR 283.2
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

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EUR 166.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1073 2 mg
EUR 164.4
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1074 2 mg
EUR 178.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H+L)

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EUR 164.4
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1076 2 mg
EUR 223.2
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1077 1 mg
EUR 172.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1078 1 mg
EUR 210
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1101 2 mg
EUR 211.2
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

40C-CB1115 1 mg
EUR 339.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti- Rabbit IgG(H+L)

FNab09778 100µg Ask for price
Description: Antibody raised against Goat Rabbit IgG(H+L)

Goat Anti Rabbit IgG (H+L)

FNSA-0031 500 uL
EUR 367.92
Description: Goat Anti Rabbit IgG (H+L) secondary antibody

Rabbit Anti-Sheep IgG (Fc) IgG, aff pure

30619 1 mg
EUR 255.6

Rabbit anti Bovine IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0120 1.5 mg
EUR 450
Description: Rabbit anti Bovine IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Bovine IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0134 2 mg
EUR 456
Description: Rabbit anti Bovine IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Cat IgG (biotin)

43C-CB0226 2 mg
EUR 436.8
Description: Rabbit anti Cat IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (biotin)

43C-CB0412 1.5 mg
EUR 406.8
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (biotin)

43C-CB0419 2 mg
EUR 417.6
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (FITC)

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EUR 373.2
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0951 2 mg
EUR 327.6
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (FITC)

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EUR 349.2
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (biotin)

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EUR 418.8
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (biotin)

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EUR 428.4
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1323 1.5 mg
EUR 354
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1330 500 µL
EUR 483.6
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1337 1.5 mg
EUR 378
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1344 500 µL
EUR 458.4
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG FC

C020221-1mg 1mg
EUR 322.8

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG FC

C020221-50mg 50mg
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Rabbit anti mouse IgG -FITC

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EUR 733.2

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (Fab'2)

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EUR 345.6
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Fab'2)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (Fab'2)

41C-CJ0411 500 µg
EUR 298.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Fab'2)

Sheep anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1080 2 mg
EUR 170.4
Description: Sheep anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Sheep anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

40C-CB1164 2 mg
EUR 253.2
Description: Sheep anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Donkey anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41C-CB1122 2 mg
EUR 164.4
Description: Donkey anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Donkey anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1071 2 mg
EUR 183.6
Description: Donkey anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Donkey anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1072 2 mg
EUR 223.2
Description: Donkey anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Donkey anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

40C-CB1129 1 mg
EUR 322.8
Description: Donkey anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Donkey Anti Rabbit IgG (H+L)

FNSA-0034 500 uL
EUR 514.08
Description: Donkey Anti Rabbit IgG (H+L) secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Bovine IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0116 1.5 mg
EUR 418.8
Description: Rabbit anti Bovine IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Bovine IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0130 2 mg
EUR 362.4
Description: Rabbit anti Bovine IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Chicken IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0320 1.5 mg
EUR 450
Description: Rabbit anti Chicken IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Chicken IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0327 1.5 mg
EUR 458.4
Description: Rabbit anti Chicken IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (biotin)

43C-CB0526 2 mg
EUR 349.2
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (biotin)

43C-CB0533 2 mg
EUR 361.2
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (biotin)

43C-CB0540 1 mg
EUR 452.4
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit Anti-Mouse IgG/HRP

E3RAM001 200ul
EUR 489.6

Rabbit Anti Human IgG-HRP

E61I00103 1mg
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Rabbit anti mouse IgG-HRP

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Rabbit Anti-Cow IgG Antibody

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  • EUR 226.80
  • EUR 134.40
  • EUR 326.40
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg

Rabbit Anti-Cow IgG Antibody

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Goat anti Rabbit IgG (Alk Phos)

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EUR 466.8
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Alk Phos)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (Alk Phos)

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EUR 577.2
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Alk Phos)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (Alk Phos)

43C-CB1156 1 mg
EUR 433.2
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Alk Phos)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (Alk Phos)

43C-CB1163 1 mg
EUR 542.4
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Alk Phos)

Chicken anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1069 2 mg
EUR 268.8
Description: Chicken anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Chicken anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1070 1 mg
EUR 315.6
Description: Chicken anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Chicken anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

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EUR 204
Description: Chicken anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG Antibody

20-abx400048
  • EUR 226.80
  • EUR 134.40
  • EUR 326.40
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg

Rabbit anti Chicken IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0316 1.5 mg
EUR 362.4
Description: Rabbit anti Chicken IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Chicken IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0323 1.5 mg
EUR 362.4
Description: Rabbit anti Chicken IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Therefore, we may speculate that the different hormonal milieu could have a more profound pathophysiological role in association with SARS-CoV-2, with endogenous testosterone leaving men more prone to develop more serious complications related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Another option is that SARS-CoV-2 infection per se causes an acute stage of male hypogonadism, the depletion of androgenic action triggering serious or an even fatal course of the disease.

Therefore, we stongly advocate the development of a prospective multidimensional andrological translational research project in men, which we called the PROTEGGIMI study. In this Opinion Article we will not only highlight novel research activity in this area but also invite other researchers and learned scientific societies to join us in our efforts to understand an important and very newly discovered gap in knowledge, which may have serious implications for the lives of millions of men.

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