Breath diagnostics in the era of SARS-CoV-2 – in clinical and research arena.

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has transformed not just healthcare, but also the economic systems on a global scale. Despite significant efforts to contain the infection, it continues to spread. Stringent infection control measures have been taken to minimise the transmission between individuals and healthcare workers, especially those undertaking aerosols generating medical procedures.

The uncertainties surrounding infection transmission through breath tests in particular, and to some extent faecal testing, will invariably cause concerns among both the patients and the healthcare workers. It is therefore pertinent that all of the necessary measures are adopted to minimise this risk of spreading. In this article, we summarise the physiology and virulence of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the implications for breath testing (in both the clinical and research arena) as well as outlining methods to mitigate these risks.

SARS-CoV-2, Testosterone and frailty in males (PROTEGGIMI): A multidimensional research project.

Preliminary published data depicts a much greater prevalence of malewith laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) referred for intensive care unit admission and severe sequelae in several countries. In this context, males seem to not only be more susceptible to the infection compared to female subjects, at least in western countries, but their case fatality rate attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection is also highest.

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

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Description: Mouse anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

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Rabbit anti Dog IgG

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Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody

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Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Rat IgG

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Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti RBC IgG

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Rabbit anti Pig IgG

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Rabbit anti RBC IgG

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Rabbit anti RBC IgG

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Rabbit anti Pig IgG

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Rabbit anti Goat IgG

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Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG antibody

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EUR 234
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody

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Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody

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Rabbit anti Human IgG

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EUR 245
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody

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EUR 394
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody

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Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody

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EUR 373
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

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EUR 358
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

41-RS45 2 mg
EUR 244
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

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EUR 95
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit Anti Human IgG

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Rabbit anti mouse IgG

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Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

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Rabbit anti Horse IgG

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Rabbit anti Horse IgG

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Rabbit anti Horse IgG

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Rabbit anti mouse IgG

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Rabbit anti mouse IgG

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Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

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Rabbit Anti Human IgG

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RABBIT ANTI MOUSE IgG

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Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

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Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies TRITC Conjugated

Rabbit anti Chicken IgG

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Description: Rabbit anti Chicken IgG secondary antibody

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Rabbit Anti-Human IgG

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Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies TRITC Conjugated

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Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies TRITC Conjugated

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EUR 367.92
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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody  (FITC)

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

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EUR 297
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

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EUR 376
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

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EUR 167
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody  (biotin)

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Therefore, we may speculate that the different hormonal milieu could have a more profound pathophysiological role in association with SARS-CoV-2, with endogenous testosterone leaving men more prone to develop more serious complications related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Another option is that SARS-CoV-2 infection per se causes an acute stage of male hypogonadism, the depletion of androgenic action triggering serious or an even fatal course of the disease.

Therefore, we stongly advocate the development of a prospective multidimensional andrological translational research project in men, which we called the PROTEGGIMI study. In this Opinion Article we will not only highlight novel research activity in this area but also invite other researchers and learned scientific societies to join us in our efforts to understand an important and very newly discovered gap in knowledge, which may have serious implications for the lives of millions of men.

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