Breath diagnostics in the era of SARS-CoV-2 – in clinical and research arena.

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has transformed not just healthcare, but also the economic systems on a global scale. Despite significant efforts to contain the infection, it continues to spread. Stringent infection control measures have been taken to minimise the transmission between individuals and healthcare workers, especially those undertaking aerosols generating medical procedures.

The uncertainties surrounding infection transmission through breath tests in particular, and to some extent faecal testing, will invariably cause concerns among both the patients and the healthcare workers. It is therefore pertinent that all of the necessary measures are adopted to minimise this risk of spreading. In this article, we summarise the physiology and virulence of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the implications for breath testing (in both the clinical and research arena) as well as outlining methods to mitigate these risks.

SARS-CoV-2, Testosterone and frailty in males (PROTEGGIMI): A multidimensional research project.

Preliminary published data depicts a much greater prevalence of malewith laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) referred for intensive care unit admission and severe sequelae in several countries. In this context, males seem to not only be more susceptible to the infection compared to female subjects, at least in western countries, but their case fatality rate attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection is also highest.

Goat anti Rabbit IgG

41R-1079 2 mg
EUR 127
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG

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Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG

41-GR30 10 mg
EUR 229
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG

41-GR31 5 mg
EUR 194.4
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG

40-GR30 100 ml
EUR 332
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG

40-GR30S 100 ml
EUR 95
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

goat Anti Rabbit IgG

E61I01301 1mg
EUR 172.5

Sheep anti Rabbit IgG

40-SR35 250 ml
EUR 95
Description: Sheep anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Mouse anti Rabbit IgG

40-1005 1 mg
EUR 325
Description: Mouse anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Mouse anti Rabbit IgG

40-1006 1 mg
EUR 325
Description: Mouse anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Cat IgG

40C-CB0222 2 mg
EUR 220
Description: Rabbit anti Cat IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Dog IgG

40C-CB0408 2 mg
EUR 248
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Dog IgG

40C-CB0415 5 mg
EUR 333
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Rat IgG

40C-CB1243 2 mg
EUR 250
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti RBC IgG

E61I01102 1mg
EUR 225

Rabbit anti Pig IgG

E61I02301 0.1mg
EUR 225

Rabbit anti Goat IgG

20-S5801R000-VO 10 ml
EUR 95
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG antibody

Rabbit anti Goat IgG

41C-CB0529 2 mg
EUR 234
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Goat IgG

40C-CB0536 1.5 mg
EUR 274
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Goat IgG

E61I01002 1mg
EUR 225

Rabbit anti Human IgG

40C-CB0943 1 mg
EUR 245
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Human IgG

40C-CB0950 5 mg
EUR 394
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Human IgG

40C-CB0971 2 mg
EUR 315
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

40C-CB1329 500 µg
EUR 373
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

40C-CB1343 500 µg
EUR 358
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

41-RS45 2 mg
EUR 244
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

40-RS50 100 ml
EUR 95
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit Anti Human IgG

E61I00101 100ug
EUR 172.5

Rabbit anti mouse IgG

E61I00901 100ug
EUR 225

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG

E61I01001 100ul
EUR 225

Rabbit anti Horse IgG

E61I02401 0.1mg
EUR 225

Rabbit Anti-Rat IgG

BA1005 0.5mg
EUR 200
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Biotin Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Rat IgG

BA1042 5mg
EUR 295
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Unconjugated

Rabbit Anti-Rat IgG

BA1058 0.5mg
EUR 219
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Peroxidase Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Rat IgG

BA1108 0.5mg
EUR 200
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies FITC Conjugated

Rabbit anti Bovine IgG

40C-CB0115 2 mg
EUR 265
Description: Rabbit anti Bovine IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Bovine IgG

40C-CB0129 5 mg
EUR 333
Description: Rabbit anti Bovine IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG

BA1006 0.5mg
EUR 200
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Biotin Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG

BA1034 0.5mg
EUR 269
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Cy3 Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG

BA1040 5mg
EUR 295
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Unconjugated

Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG

BA1060 0.5mg
EUR 219
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Peroxidase Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG

BA1091-0.5 0.5mg
EUR 269
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies TRITC Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG

BA1091-1 1mg
EUR 350
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies TRITC Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG

BA1110 0.5mg
EUR 200
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies FITC Conjugated

Rabbit anti Chicken IgG

41C-CB0315 2 mg
EUR 257
Description: Rabbit anti Chicken IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Chicken IgG

40C-CB0322 5 mg
EUR 340
Description: Rabbit anti Chicken IgG secondary antibody

Rabbit Anti-Mouse IgG

E-AB-1033-1mg 1mg
EUR 90
Description: Unconjugated

Rabbit Anti-Mouse IgG

E-AB-1033-each each Ask for price
Description: Unconjugated

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG

BA1020 0.5mg
EUR 200
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Biotin Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG

BA1035 0.5mg
EUR 269
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Cy3 Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG

BA1041 5mg
EUR 295
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Unconjugated

Rabbit Anti-Mouse IgG

BA1048 5mg
EUR 325
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Unconjugated

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG

BA1070 0.5mg
EUR 219
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Peroxidase Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG

BA1092-0.5 0.5mg
EUR 269
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies TRITC Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG

BA1092-1 1mg
EUR 350
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies TRITC Conjugated

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG

BA1114 0.5mg
EUR 200
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies FITC Conjugated

Rabbit anti alpaca IgG rabbit pAb

E28PT7952 100μl
EUR 255
Description: Available in various conjugation types.

Rabbit anti alpaca IgG rabbit pAb

E44H16517 100ul
EUR 255
Description: Biotin-Conjugated, FITC-Conjugated , AF350 Conjugated , AF405M-Conjugated ,AF488-Conjugated, AF514-Conjugated ,AF532-Conjugated, AF555-Conjugated ,AF568-Conjugated , HRP-Conjugated, AF405S-Conjugated, AF405L-Conjugated , AF546-Conjugated, AF594-Conjugated , AF610-Conjugated, AF635-Conjugated , AF647-Conjugated , AF680-Conjugated , AF700-Conjugated , AF750-Conjugated , AF790-Conjugated , APC-Conjugated , PE-Conjugated , Cy3-Conjugated , Cy5-Conjugated , Cy5.5-Conjugated , Cy7-Conjugated Antibody

Rabbit Anti-Monkey IgG

FNSA-0099 500 uL
EUR 367.92
Description: Rabbit Anti-Monkey IgG secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG Fc

41C-CB1136 2 mg
EUR 234
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG Fc

70R-IG011 1.5 mg
EUR 348
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG Fc secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG Fc

70R-IG017 2 mg
EUR 347
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG Fc secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1141 2 mg
EUR 397
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1148 2 mg
EUR 353
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1155 2 mg
EUR 344
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1162 2 mg
EUR 376
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (HRP)

43R-1495 1 mg
EUR 115
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody  (HRP)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1137 2 mg
EUR 256
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1144 2 mg
EUR 293
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1158 2 mg
EUR 418
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (FITC)

43R-1494 2 mg
EUR 176
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody  (FITC)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (FITC)

43-GR59 2 mg
EUR 276
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

goat Anti Rabbit IgG-HRP

E61I01303 1mg
EUR 345

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (biotin)

43C-CB1140 2 mg
EUR 297
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (biotin)

43C-CB1147 2 mg
EUR 373
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (biotin)

43C-CB1154 2 mg
EUR 297
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (biotin)

43C-CB1161 2 mg
EUR 376
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (biotin)

43R-1493 2 mg
EUR 167
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody  (biotin)

goat Anti Rabbit IgG-FITC

E61I01304 1mg
EUR 431.25

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG (Fc) IgG, unlabeled

10119-R 0.5 mg
EUR 169.2

Rabbit Anti-Glutathione IgG

GSH11-A 100 ul
EUR 578.4

Chicken anti Rabbit IgG (FITC)

43R-1601 1 ml
EUR 217
Description: Chicken anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

goat Anti Rabbit IgG-Biotin

E61I01302 1mg
EUR 345

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (rhodamine)

43C-CB1138 2 mg
EUR 256
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Rhodamine)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (rhodamine)

43C-CB1145 2 mg
EUR 352
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Rhodamine)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (rhodamine)

43C-CB1152 2 mg
EUR 265
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Rhodamine)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (rhodamine)

43C-CB1159 2 mg
EUR 418
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Rhodamine)

anti-mouse+rabbit IgG mAb

E4A03B27 50ug
EUR 255
Description: Available in various conjugation types.

GOAT ANTI RABBIT IGG, INTACT IGG, HRP, 2 ML

9451034 1ML
EUR 207.65

GOAT ANTI RABBIT IGG, INTACT IGG, FITC, 2 MG

9451033 1MG
EUR 169.58

Rabbit anti Cat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0227 2 mg
EUR 322
Description: Rabbit anti Cat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0413 1.5 mg
EUR 358
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0420 2 mg
EUR 351
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1248 1.5 mg
EUR 376
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1255 2 mg
EUR 376
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG Fc

41R-1013 1 mg
EUR 168
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG Fc fragment secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Goat IgG Fc

41R-1014 1 mg
EUR 190
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG Fc fragment secondary antibody

GOAT ANTI RABBIT IGG, INTACT IGG, UNCONJ., 2 MG

9451030 1MG
EUR 153.48

GOAT ANTI RABBIT IGG, INTACT IGG, BIOTIN, 2 ML

9451032 1ML
EUR 207.65

Rabbit anti Cat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0223 2 mg
EUR 270
Description: Rabbit anti Cat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0409 1.5 mg
EUR 270
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0416 2 mg
EUR 270
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0527 2 mg
EUR 335
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0534 2 mg
EUR 355
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0541 1 mg
EUR 387
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1244 1.5 mg
EUR 256
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1251 2 mg
EUR 263
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Anti- Goat Anti Rabbit IgG (HL) Antibody

GWB-FFA3B2 1 mg Ask for price

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0523 2 mg
EUR 288
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0530 2 mg
EUR 288
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Goat IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0537 1 mg
EUR 315
Description: Rabbit anti Goat IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0948 1 mg
EUR 430
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0955 2 mg
EUR 355
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0969 2 mg
EUR 367
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1327 1.5 mg
EUR 397
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1334 500 µg
EUR 443
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1341 1.5 mg
EUR 358
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (HRP)

43C-CB1348 500 µg
EUR 427
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

43C-CB1108 2 mg
EUR 220
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41C-CB1101 2 mg
EUR 116
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1073 2 mg
EUR 115
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1074 2 mg
EUR 127
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H+L)

41R-1075 2 mg
EUR 116
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1076 2 mg
EUR 167
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1077 1 mg
EUR 123
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1078 1 mg
EUR 156
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

41R-1101 2 mg
EUR 176
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L)

40C-CB1115 1 mg
EUR 259
Description: Goat anti Rabbit IgG (H + L) secondary antibody

Goat anti- Rabbit IgG(H+L)

FNab09778 100µg Ask for price
Description: Antibody raised against Goat Rabbit IgG(H+L)

Goat Anti Rabbit IgG (H+L)

FNSA-0031 500 uL
EUR 367.92
Description: Goat Anti Rabbit IgG (H+L) secondary antibody

Rabbit anti Bovine IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0120 1.5 mg
EUR 369
Description: Rabbit anti Bovine IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Bovine IgG (HRP)

43C-CB0134 2 mg
EUR 358
Description: Rabbit anti Bovine IgG secondary antibody (HRP)

Rabbit anti Cat IgG (biotin)

43C-CB0226 2 mg
EUR 309
Description: Rabbit anti Cat IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (biotin)

43C-CB0412 1.5 mg
EUR 315
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Dog IgG (biotin)

43C-CB0419 2 mg
EUR 347
Description: Rabbit anti Dog IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0944 1 mg
EUR 311
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0951 2 mg
EUR 268
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Human IgG (FITC)

43C-CB0965 2 mg
EUR 288
Description: Rabbit anti Human IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (biotin)

43C-CB1247 1.5 mg
EUR 331
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Rat IgG (biotin)

43C-CB1254 2 mg
EUR 351
Description: Rabbit anti Rat IgG secondary antibody (biotin)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1323 1.5 mg
EUR 265
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1330 500 µL
EUR 392
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1337 1.5 mg
EUR 283
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti Sheep IgG (FITC)

43C-CB1344 500 µL
EUR 376
Description: Rabbit anti Sheep IgG secondary antibody (FITC)

Rabbit anti mouse IgG -FITC

E61I00904 1mg
EUR 431.25

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG FC

C020221-1mg 1mg
EUR 322.8

Rabbit Anti-Human IgG FC

C020221-50mg 50mg
EUR 7218

HRP, Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG

A21030-100uL 100 μL
EUR 29
Description: HRP conjugated Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) secondary antibody

HRP, Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG

A21030-500uL 500 μL
EUR 79
Description: HRP conjugated Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) secondary antibody

Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG(5nm)

GA1023 0.1mg
EUR 320
Description: Polyclonal Secondary Antibodies Colloidal gold Conjugated

HRP, Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG

A21030-each each Ask for price

Therefore, we may speculate that the different hormonal milieu could have a more profound pathophysiological role in association with SARS-CoV-2, with endogenous testosterone leaving men more prone to develop more serious complications related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Another option is that SARS-CoV-2 infection per se causes an acute stage of male hypogonadism, the depletion of androgenic action triggering serious or an even fatal course of the disease.

Therefore, we stongly advocate the development of a prospective multidimensional andrological translational research project in men, which we called the PROTEGGIMI study. In this Opinion Article we will not only highlight novel research activity in this area but also invite other researchers and learned scientific societies to join us in our efforts to understand an important and very newly discovered gap in knowledge, which may have serious implications for the lives of millions of men.

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